of the thorough-going nationalist parties, as the * champions of a holy war/ and in this role the c supporters of revolution/ called on their Governments to urge an increase in the war effort aad demanded supplies for Russia, to be paid for out of the pockets of the British and American tax payers. According to the Kremlin's conception of war, the war of the * entire world against the Soviet Socialist State' or (according to the times) the war of' Imperialism against Communism ' should, and would, last until one or the other side was able to shoutc Halali * over the dead body of its mortal enemy. In this conception have they been born and bred in Moscow, and it would be childish to imagine that in one day, or even one year, all this ingrained feeling, this corner-stone of their faith, would suddenly vanish. The war which Soviet Communism had waged was merely temporarily suspended in 1941, and there can only be suppositions as to when, and under what form, this struggle would recommence. As it soon transpired, however, and owing to the modern methods of psycho- logical warfare, the Kremlin was able to renew its * holy war' against the world as soon as the dawn of German defeat began to steal over the horizon. The war of Germany (and later of Japan) against the € rich powers of the world' left the Kremlin unmoved. The more these c Imperialists * fought among themselves the better, was the attitude they had adopted, but unfortunately for the Soviets they found themselves drawn into the conflict. Therefore the one aim of the Kremlin's policy was to extract the country as quickly and as completely as possible from such an in- auspicious position, and for this reason the Sonets showed so little inclination to merge with the Allies during the years of war which followed. Moscow had always conducted real politics—and underlined its independ- ence at every opportunity—breaking without hesitation yesterday's charters, declarations and agreements. The Kremlin, remembering tie thesis of Lenin that every great revolution is linked up with war, was looking beyond the horizon of the existing conflict. Stalin, referring to this thesis, had remarked several years previously :* " It is scarcely possible to doubt but that the Second War against the Soviet Union will lead to a complete defeat of the attackers, a revolution in several countries of Europe and Asia, and a riot against the bourgeois landowner governments.** At that moment the Soviet Union must be ready. By threatening France and Britain with a separately concluded peace with Germany, the Tsarist Government had, during the First Great War, gained the connivance of the Allies to the incorporation into the Russian Empire of the countries reaching far to the West. The Bolsheviks* pre-occupied with the stabilisation of their regime, had not been interested in those * Stalin's speech at the Seventeenth Congress of the Party in 1939.